The Agricultural Landscape
Open-fields probably covered much of the Parish by the mid-11thC, as suggested by Anglo-Saxon Furlong names, indentations (probably derived from Open-field Furlongs) along the Easington Parish Boundary, and the total of 18-Plough-teams recorded in 1086. By the 14thC Chalgrove had 9-Fields grouped into 3 ‘Seasons’, which were probably cultivated on a 3-course rotation of Winter & Spring-sown Crops & Fallow; in the 19thC, they covered 1,764 acres. Three (Langley or Langdon, Great South, & Little South) lay South of the Village, with 3 more (Bower End, Upper End, & Houndswell) along the Village’s Northern Edge. The others (Down, Solinger & Sand) bordered Easington & Chalgrove common. All those Fields were Inclosed by Act of Parliament in 1843, long after Rofford’s Private Inclosure in the 17thC or earlier. In 1841 (when Arable covered 2/3rds of the Parish) the largely Gravel soils produced good wheat Land and the proportion of Arable rose to 75% by 1870. Following the Agricultural depression it fell to less than 50% by 1930, however, recovering its former primacy after WW2.
Streams provided extensive Meadow, organised from the Middle Ages both in Common and in Private Closes. Additional Meadow lay in the detached part of Lewknor on the Parish’s Eastern Border, where Chalgrove’s inhabitants were accused of illegally grazing cattle in 1237; Common Rights there were still claimed in the 17thC and c.14 acres were included in Chalgrove’s 19thC Inclosure & Tithe Awards. Common Pasture was available in Chalgrove Common (112a), and also in the Fallows; the Manor Court resisted overgrazing, however, and Medieval Tenants were sometimes fined for trespassing in private Pastures. Old Inclosures were variously grazed or ploughed, but though the area under grass increased considerably in the early 20thC it was rarely of good quality and was Ploughed up as soon as Arable Farming’s prospects improved.
The Parish was unwooded in 1086, and some Manorial Woods mentioned in the 14thC may have lain in Gangsdown (in Nuffield). In 1336 the Plessis Manor produced 400 faggots and ½a of Underwood a year, and in 1329 a Tenant trespassed in Barentin’s Wood. Magdalen College received 18s from wood sales in 1504/5. Building Timber had to be purchased elsewhere: 32 Cartloads were brought from Shipston-on-Stour (Warks) via Woodstock in 1453/4, and in later centuries locally produced Timber remained scarce. In 1671 Thomas Wootton’s Rofford Holding included Timber trees ‘wasted and rotten about the Grounds’, and only Hedgerow trees were marked on 18thC Maps. Fewer than 8a of Woodland remained in 1841, increased to 45a in a few small Copses by 1988.
Medieval Tenant & Demesne Farming
In 1086 Chalgrove Manor contained land for 12 Plough-teams, Meadow 3 Furlongs square, and 60a of Pasture and yielded £12 including Tenants’ Rents. The smaller Rofford Manor comprised 5 Ploughlands, 5a of Meadow, and 16a of Pasture, and was worth £3. Both Manors had increased in value and were largely Arable-based, Chalgrove’s 13-Plough-teams suggesting a recent expansion of the cultivated area. Its 4-Ploughland Demesne Farm was run partly by Servi, while Rofford’s Demesne was 2-Ploughlands; the 2 places together also had 12-Teams worked by 43 Tenants (30 Villani & 13 Bordars). Arable Farming continued to provide much of Chalgrove’s income in the late 12thC, and in 1212 the King received more than £9 from grain sales, besides £20 paid by the Manors Lessee. The same year 200a were sown with wheat, 10a with beans, 14a with barley, & 215½a with oats. The Ploughs were worked by Oxen (50 were bought in 1195, enough for 6¼ 8-Ox Plough-teams), and cattle & pigs were also reared.
In 1233 Chalgrove’s Demesne & Tenant Land was divided between 2 Owners, and in 1279 both the Barentin & Plessis Demesnes included c.312a of Arable, 30a of Meadow, and 30a of Pasture. On both manors Villeins holding Yardlands (Virgate) & ½-Yardlands (Oxgang) owed cash Rents & Labour Services including ploughing, harrowing, weeding, reaping, mowing, carrying, & threshing, although Free Tenants & cottars owed few if any labour services. Rofford’s 2-Hide Demesne (c.200a) was Leased, & Tenants’ Labour Services there were commuted, with Yardlanders paying 18s Rent compared with 5s at Chalgrove. The Plessis Demesne was still worth £32 in 1336, 4 times the nominal value of the Tenants’ Rents & Services; fields were sown on a complex 3-course rotation, and harvested crops stored in 3 Barns & a Granary. The Parish’s Agriculture evidently produced a large Taxable surplus, its payment of £15-4s-6d in 1334 being the highest in the Hundred.
Tenants’ livestock included horses, oxen, cows, pigs, sheep, & geese; some were grazed illegally in the Lord’s Meadow & corn in 1340–1, and ½-Yardlander gave a Mare for Heriot. Trespass by livestock continued after the Black Death, suggesting continued pressure on grazing; as Land became more readily available such cases became less frequent, however, and by the 15thC the Manor Court’s chief concern was neglect of unused Buildings & of Ditches. Falling Land values enabled Tenants to accumulate larger Holdings, and rents rose as Labour Services were commuted: in 1424 a ½-Yardlander paid 12s a year and owed 1-day’s Service at Harvest-time, while in 1433 William Gregory paid an annual rent of 16s-8d for 1¼-Yardlands and a 3a Croft. Mixed Farming continued, with the Arable acreage apparently undiminished c.1380.
In 1458/9 John Barentin leased his Chalgrove Demesne for £15-2s-11d a year, receiving Rents of more than £25 from his Free & Customary Tenants & Cottagers. Rofford’s Demesne was leased to Richard Coleman (with Tenants’ Rents) for £11 a year, rising to £12 in 1462/3. Profits later fell: by 1488/9 Magdalen College received only £11-3s-4d from the Barentin demesne, then leased in parcels with some uncultivated parts left unlet, while Rent for the Argentein Demesne (let to William Wiggin) fell from £3-6s-8d to £3. The College also encountered difficulties in collecting Tenants’ Rents, and in the 1490s built a Pinfold for impounding defaulters’ Animals. Nevertheless, its Chalgrove Estate remained profitable, prompting the College to invest in the repair of Tenants’ buildings and in 1490/1, construction of a new 5-Bay Barn.
Farms & Farming 1500–1800
In the early 16thC, Magdalen’s Chalgrove Income rose from c.£35 in 1497/8 to £39 in 1524/5, while Rent arrears fell from over £66 to c.£28. In 1520 all but 26½a of its 239a Barentin Demesne were let at 6d an acre to a total of 16 Tenants, holding Plots of between ½a and 56a each. Lessees included members of the Burnham, Cave, Child, Quatremain, Simms, & Wiggin families, who featured also among the Manor’s Copyholders, occupying Open-field Yardlands with parcels of Meadow & Pasture. Most grew wheat & barley (some of it malted for Brewing), kept cattle & sheep, and were moderately prosperous, while debts mentioned in 1566 suggest that Markets included not only Watlington but Oxford, Reading, & Henley- on- Thames.
Sheep-&-corn Husbandry & Dairying continued into the 17thC, most obviously among the Parish’s wealthier Farmers. Wheat & barley remained the principal cereals, with beans, peas, & hay providing fodder. Farmyard dung (mostly from cattle & pigs) was used for manuring, while Oxen were generally supplanted by Horses for Ploughs & Carts. Sheep were presumably folded on the Arable (hurdles were sometimes mentioned), and the larger flocks produced marketable quantities of wool; cows supported butter & cheese-making, although herds (including bulls & younger animals) generally numbered no more than 30. Pigs provided bacon, while poultry included ducks, geese, hens, & turkeys. Farm servants & labourers were widely employed: William Child (d.1630) owed wages for ploughing & weeding, and also hired a molecatcher.
In 1678 Magdalen’s Copyhold Rents totalled £35 10s 9d, while 3 Leaseholders paid £12-17s-11d & 8 Freeholders £1-3s-11½d. The College’s total Rent-roll of c.£49 remained unchanged between the late 16th & mid-18thC. Amongst Magdalen’s Tenants, John Sedgley, a Barber & Wigmaker, held a mixture of Copyhold, Freehold, and Leasehold Land, but was bankrupted in 1762; his Copyholds were held for 3-Lives, and his College Leaseholds for 20-yr Terms renewable every 7-yrs. His Estate (which included 64a of Freehold) was Sublet, although valuations of that and other Farms suggest that Rack-renting remained uncommon.
The Open-fields were cultivated probably on a 4-course rotation of wheat, barley, pulses, & fallow, with apples grown in Orchards and crops such as hemp cultivated possibly in Gardens. Holdings were generally scattered across 3 or 4 fields, in which Tenants enjoyed Common Grazing Rights, and often they included parcels of Meadow and Inclosed Pasture. The Commons were Stinted: each Yardlander was entitled to graze 4 cattle or horses & 40 sheep and Subletting was restricted to 2 cow Commons per Cottager. Cattle were grazed on the Harvested fields until 1st November, while sheep were admitted to the Wheat Field a week after Harvest, to the Barley & Pulse Fields on 1st November, and to other named Fields on 30th November, remaining there until 25th March. Four Fieldsmen were appointed to enforce the Orders.
At Chalgrove there were 2 Groups of Fields. The Fields of the smaller Group
to the South of the Village are designated in the Tithe Schedule Langdon, Middle Langdon & Lower Langdon. With these went certain Furlongs toward the Northwest, and within them lay much Freehold. Indeed, it is not certain that so late as 1841 they were Tilled in a strictly 3-Field manner. To the Northeast of the Village lay those Fields among which the Copyholds, the Glebe, & certain Freeholds were divided. They were without doubt the old 3-Fields of the Township, and in 1841 were known as Solinger Field, Houndswell Field & Sand Field. They adjoined one another and were similar in extent. At the Western end of Houndswell Field lay 2 small ‘Fields’ named Bower End & Upper End, both clearly appendant to Houndswell Field but probably deriving independent names from their proximity to parts of the Village called Bower End & Upper End. It will be noticed that the Parcels were distributed with considerable equality among the 3-Fields. Solinger Field received 7¼-acres in 15 Parcels, Sand Field 9-acres in 13 Parcels, Houndswell Field (with Bower End & Upper End Fields) 52-acres in 13 Parcels. Were the Terrier of an earlier date, the irregularity in apportionment would probably have been less. The areas assigned to the Parcels show approximations to acre, ½-acre & ¼-acre Strips; and the locations (numbers on the Map correspond with numbers in the Terrier) illustrate the scattering of the Strips throughout the Fields & Furlongs. Late though the Chalgrove Map & Terrier be, they enable us to form a correct & vivid idea of the fundamental characteristics of the 3-Field System and allow us to interpret earlier evidence not made Graphic by contemporary Maps.
Rofford’s Inclosure (complete by c.1600) permitted greater flexibility, though its Farming was probably similar to Chalgrove’s. Both Greenings & Wootton’s Farms (in the East of the Township) included Arable, Meadow, & Pasture Closes, their names suggesting cereal & legume cultivation as well as cattle & sheep grazing. Proposals to Inclose Chalgrove’s fields in the 1770s & 1790s were not pursued, and Holdings remained both dispersed and often quite small: those on Langley Manor ranged from 110a to 1a, with most under 10 acres, while Open-field land in 1774 (still held in ½-a Strips) was worth a modest 11s-14s an acre compared with 30s for nearby Inclosed ground. The Agricultural Improver Arthur Young dismissed the entire Parish in few words: ‘Clay; sad roads, and bad husbandry: all open.‘
Farms & Farming since 1800
Young’s judgement was confirmed in 1841 by the Tithe Commissioner, who observed that the Open-fields were ‘let in small Farms under College Leases and [are] consequently very badly Farmed’. Nineteen Farmers were resident in Chalgrove & 2 in Rofford, of whom 8 held over 100a, & 7 41–90 acres. Some Holdings were Owner-occupied or held from a single Proprietor, but others were a complex mix of Freehold, Copyhold, & Leasehold. Gabriel Billing occupied 127a in 12 parcels from 4 different Landowners, while James Honey’s 83a College Farm included Magdalen Copyholds Sublet by Henry Adeane.
Inclosure was carried out under a Private Act of 1843 promoted by Magdalen & Lincoln Colleges and Mary Blount of Langley, with Land distributed among 56 Owners and occupiers. Of those, 28 Landholders received less than 10a, and only 6 more than 100a, out of 1,764a allotted. The Inclosure had no immediate impact on either Farm size or Tenancies: no new outlying Farms were built, and many of the Parish’s established Farming families remained in 1851, when 8 Farmers (including 2 in Rofford) held more than 100a, & 6 Farms covered 27–82 acres. In all around 2,100a were worked by 16 Farmers employing 122 labourers. The pattern was largely unchanged in 1870/1, when Richard Hatt held 470a, & 5 other Chalgrove Farmers 142–236 acres. Another 6 Farms covered 20–100a, and there were 6 Smallholdings.
At that date Chalgrove remained ¾ Arable. Wheat, barley, & oats were the main crops, occupying 55% of the cultivated area, while fodder crops covered 34%, and 11% (142 a.) was fallow. Meadow & Pasture (393a) supported 70 horses, 67 dairy or younger cattle, 1,960 sheep, & 186 pigs. Similar practices prevailed at Rofford, where 2/3rds was cropped and a 1/3rd was grass. Thereafter late 19thC agricultural depression reduced the proportion of Arable to little more than half, as Tillage was converted to Pasture: by 1900, 1,000a of grass supported an enlarged herd of 277 cattle, 126 horses & foals, and 1,476 sheep. The remaining Arable was increasingly dominated by cereal production, sometimes using Steam Ploughs & other Machinery, although sheep were probably still folded.
Despite the depression, Magdalen initially maintained or even increased its Rental income from Chalgrove, collecting more than £1,000 in 1900. Rents increased still further in the early 1900s and after WW1, rising on the larger Farms from c.21s an acre in 1911 to 29s in 1922. Farm sizes still varied: in 1920 9 Farms exceeded 100a & 6 covered 20–100a, and there were 8 Smallholdings as well as 13a of Allotments (provided by the Parish Council). By the 1930s several Farmers could no longer afford Magdalen’s Rack-rents and were granted allowances. The College’s Surveyor reported that one Farmer was hard-working but ‘rather beaten by circumstances‘, and that his Rent was too high; another had laid down Land to grass, though none of it was ‘really good’ and a Rent reduction ‘can hardly be resisted‘. Buildings were converted to milk sheds as Dairying increased, though one such was condemned as Insanitary, and the College was sometimes reluctant to bear improvement costs.
Despite the shift towards Dairying several Farms remained predominantly Arable in 1941, growing wheat, barley, oats, & fodder crops, and stocking cattle, sheep, & pigs. On S C Franklin’s Estate (bought from Magdalen College in 1942 and truncated by the construction of the Airfield the following year), most remaining grass was Ploughed up in the later 1940s, and grain drying plants were installed. By 1960 arable covered almost 70% of the Parish’s Farmland, producing chiefly barley & wheat, while increasing mechanisation encouraged larger enterprises, with 2 cereal Farms covering more than 1,000a each by 1970. In 1988 a large pig & poultry Farm stocked over 6,600 pigs, and there was a smaller cattle & sheep-rearing farm.
Trades Crafts & Retailing
Like some other Vale Settlements Chalgrove had a relatively wide range of Crafts & Trades. Jordan the Weaver was mentioned c.1230–40, and other Medieval occupational surnames included Cook, Ironmonger, Tailor, Skinner (Pellipar’), & Thatcher, while Carpenters were employed on Magdalen Colleges Manor in the 1480s-90s. Robert the Smith held half a Yardland on Barentin’s Manor in 1279, making Ironwork for 2 Ploughs for his Labour Service, and the family continued as Tenants of the Village Forge into the early 16thC. Brewing was apparently widespread: 43 fines for breaking the Assize of Ale were paid in 1296/7, and in the I5th & 16thCs (when production was generally on a larger scale) 3 or 4 Brewers were named in Chalgrove, and one in Rofford.
As elsewhere Crafts were sometimes practiced alongside Farming, William Payse (d. 1598) leaving Carpenters Tools to his son, & wheat, barley, and cattle to other relatives. Edmund Hambledon (d.1617) was a Weaver, and other 17thC inhabitants kept Spinning Wheels, although cloth-making remained small-scale. Both Chalgrove & Rofford continued to support blacksmiths, carpenters, tailors, & wheelwrights, while less common occupations included bricklayer, joiner, tiler, & maltster, with malting possibly increasing during the 18thC. Nonetheless, numbers employed outside Agriculture remained small, reportedly comprising only 10 people out of a population of 518 in 1801. Probably those included the Grocer & Baker John Skeat, the Shopkeeper John Cross, and Village Publicans John Herbert & Edward Peedle.
Occupations in 1841 included those of baker, blacksmith, butcher, carpenter, clockmaker, cooper, cordwainer, grocer, harness maker, mason, publican, sawyer, shoemaker, tailor, & wheelwright, and 10 years later several women were employed as dressmakers, lacemakers, & laundresses. Even so, as Population fell employment became increasingly limited to Farm work. A small Brickworks at nearby Lonesome Farm (in Newington Parish), opened in 1927, may have provided occasional work, and in 1949 (when renamed the Chalgrove Brick Co) employed up to 12 men. Thereafter production fell, and the Works closed in 1954.
A small Brick & Tile works established by the Farmer John Deane employed one man in 1861, but apparently closed soon afterwards. A longer-lasting Enterprise was started by the Franklins at Lonesome Farm in 1927, employing 3–5 men in the 1930s when it produced 30,000–74,000 bricks a year, sold to Builders in Wallingford, Henley, & Benson. In 1947 (following temporary Wartime closure) it was revived as the Chalgrove Brick Co and at its height in 1949 Employed 12 men & Sold 349,000 Bricks, including some to a London Building Firm. Thereafter production fell sharply, and the Works closed in 1954. The Kiln and some other infrastructure survived in 1980.
Many an American Serviceman in the last War, Stationed at Chalgrove, must have wondered about the History of the strangely shaped Kiln, much as some of us now still wonder about hidden in the trees on the B481 Stoke Row to Nettlebed Road, opposite Merrimoles Farm.
A Cycle Repair Business opened in the 1920s and a Petrol Station in 1954, but in 1966, following the closure of 2 of the Village’s Pubs and of a long-standing Grocers (formerly Baileys), only the Petrol Station, Post Office, and 3 other Pubs remained, employing 12 full-time staff. Thereafter housing development attracted new Businesses, beginning with a parade of 4 Shops opened on High Street in 1967. A particular success was the Monument Industrial Park on Warpsgrove Lane, which provided Business Units, Offices, & Warehouses to c.8o Firms, employing more than 500 people in 2013. Rather different was the Martin-Baker Aircraft Co, based at Denham (Bucks), which in 1946 began using Chalgrove Airfield to Test its Aircraft Ejector-seats, of which it was the Country’s only Manufacturer. Despite local opposition, in 1963 the Government offered the Airfield to the Company on a long Lease on the grounds that its work was ‘essential for Defence purposes’, and it remained in Chalgrove in 2015.
Chalgrove Mill Lane (The Watermill)
Mill & Millhouse, now House. 17thC Millhouse with mid-18thC right bay. Originally timber-framed, some timber framing with brick infill to rear; roughcast front; mid-18thC English Bond Brick to rear right. Gabled Roof, 20thC Tiles to rear, old Tiles to front; late 19thC left end Stack. 2 extended to 3-Unit Plan. 2 Storeys; 2-window Range. Early 20thC door & casements.
Interior: chamfered & stopped beams: timber-framed central portion & right side wall on 1st-Floor. Late 18thC panelled door & ribbed doors. Roof not inspected. Mill to right dated 1871/AF, of Brick with gabled Welsh Slate Roof, is attached to Waterboarded building on right housing Iron Overshot Wheel. Mill race at rear with leat to right.
Milling – In 1086 Chalgrove Manor included 5 Mills worth £3 a year, sited probably on Chalgrove Brook. Almost certainly they exceeded the Manor’s own needs and perhaps served neighbouring Communities. Several Millers were mentioned in the early 13thC, and 3 or 4 Mills continued in 1279, including one on each of the 2 main Manors & another Leased jointly. The Mill’s Tithes were given by Miles Crispin to Bec Abbey, which c.1250 Leased them to the Rector for life for 13s-4d a year. The Plessis Manor still had 2 Watermills in 1336 (let for £3-13s-4d a year), but later only one. Probably that was the Mill let by the Audleys for 5s a year in 1377, which is perhaps to be identified with Stratford Mill on the Brightwell Baldwin Boundary. The Barentin Manor included Trylle & Church Mills, let respectively in 1451 to 2 Wallingford Butchers & a Miller (for 37s a year), and to Thomas Algar. By 1490 one was empty and possibly abandoned, although Magdalen College may have repaired the other in 1492/4. In the 1520s the College-owned 1-Watermill and a Horse Mill (let for £3-13s-4d), and from the late 16thC it let its remaining Watermill (on Mill Lane) for £20 a year to successive members of the Gillman Family.
Henry Gillman (assessed on 2-Hearths in 1662) may have built the surviving Timber-framed Miller’s House, which was probably extended and infilled with Brick in the 18thC. Later Millers included William Carter, Thomas Young, William Knight & Richard Smith, the occupant in 1871 when the Mill itself was rebuilt in Brick, with a Weatherboarded extension housing an Iron Overshot Wheel. In 1900 the Lessee Henry Nixey still paid £20 a yr, and in 1942 Frederick Nixey bought the Freehold for £775; by 1955 the Mill was powered by Electricity but ceased operating in the 1960s. In the 1990s new Owners extended the House and restored the machinery.
A new Owner, in October 1996, renovated the attached House and restored the Mill to working order before selling the Property in 1999.
The Building that Houses the Mill was re-built in 1871, when the Under or Mid-Shot Wheel was replaced by an Overshot one. During the restoration Works of the late 1990s, the Wheel was turned to run backwards as a high Breast-Shot, thus not needing the high Water Level that had in the past caused Flooding in the Village.
Millers of the more recent past had the full Water Rights. Traditionally, at lunchtime on Saturday, the Miller’s Assistant would open the Top Gate, on the Berrick Road near the Junction with Monument Road, to allow the water to run down the Front Brook, through the High Street, so that Villagers could do their washing and, after Chapel on Sunday, the Miller would close the Gate so that the water flowed through the Marl Brook, or Back Brook as it was locally known, to fill the Lagoons that had been constructed so that sufficient Water would be available for a full 6½–days’ Milling. When, in the 1920s, a long drought reduced the Marl Brook, now designated Chalgrove Brook, to a trickle, a Steam Engine was used to keep the Mill working, and when this had to be returned for its normal usage a Tractor, lent by the same Farmer, was used in conjunction with a portable Engine.
As you look at the various types of Water-wheel, you will also see that they tend to have characteristic Bucket shapes. The Overshot Wheel normally having straight Buckets set tangentially to the Wheel, the Breast-Shot Wheel having heavily Curved Buckets, and the Undershot Wheel simply having straight Paddles sticking out from the Rim. There are 4 main types of Water Wheel – The ‘Overshot’ on which water enters the buckets at the top on the down-running side; The ‘Undershot’ where water flows underneath the Wheel which is more like a large Paddle; The ‘Breastshot’ where water enters the Buckets at about the middle of the Wheel and the ‘Pitchback’ on which the water enters the Buckets at the rear of the Wheel beneath the pentrough. Overshot & Pitchback Wheels are more efficient than the other type because they are driven both by the weight of Water [1 cu ft (28 ltrs) weighs 62 Ibs (28 kg)] and by the Force or pressure of water directed into the Buckets by the ‘Pentrough’. Both types of Wheel require a good “Head of water” that is the difference between the height of Water in the Millpond & the Tailrace. The Power, and to some extent the Speed of the Wheel are determined by the amount of water flowing into it, that is, by Flow (mass per unit time) & Fall. The Flow is controlled by the ‘Penstock’ (a Sluice Gate) located in the Pentrough, which is raised & lowered by a rack & pinion turned by a Lever on the Stone Floor behind the left-hand pair of Stones. The higher the Penstock, the greater the Flow (mass) of Water. The Fall is given by the Head of Water mentioned above. It has been calculated that such Wheels could generate about 10-HP.
Evidence of both Romano-British & Saxon Mills has been found in Chalgrove, and the Domesday Book records 5-Mills. One of these was probably at Benson: 2 records testify the Grant of a Mill at Benson from the Lord of the Manor of Chalgrove to the Abbot of Abingdon, and the Hundred Rolls of 1275 refers to 4-Mills only. Records of the later Medieval period refer by name to 3-Mills. Stratfordmill was at the Eastern end of the Parish, Chyrchemylle was probably not far from the Church and the Barentin Manor, & Trylle Mill may have been on or near the Site of the present Mill. In 1548 Peter Gylmyn, had the Tenancy from Magdalen College of 2-Mills, one a Watermill and the other a Horse Mill.
Richard Smith is recorded as Miller in 1863 and again in 1868. In the 1881 Census John Bowerman is recorded as Master Miller and his 13-yr-old son, Edward, as Miller. There was also a Miller, George Plank, living at Sun Mill Cottages. Joseph Saw was recorded, in 1899, as Carpenter, Builder, Beer Retailer & Miller (Water). It is understood that the Nixey Family Moved from the Windmill at Brill to The Mill at Chalgrove in c.1900 and Frederick Nixey took over the Milling & Associated Business in 1909. An Agreement of Tenancy to Frederick Nixey is dated 1st June 1920, and it was he who purchased the Mill when it was sold by Magdalen College in 1942. When Frederick Nixey died in 1948, his son-in-law, Frank Lawrence took over the by then much diversified Business.
Inset: Cast Iron Sack Scale with Bar Balance